In 1918, professor Clarke already pointed at the need of sound pedagogy and realistic expectations for technology to be effective: “[The phonograph] teaches only when its master makes it teach, and hence its failure in so large a number of cases of beginners who hope everything from its use” (p. 117). In 2018, the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages’ states that “the use of technology is not a goal in and of itself; rather technology is one tool that supports language learners” and that “the development of technology is best driven by the needs of the language learner” (ACTFL, position statements). Source: EmergingEdTech
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